Appendix B


THIS PAGE NEEDS UPDATING AFTER THE EXPLORITORY TRIP IN THE SUMMER OF 2022 WHEN MANY UNKNOWN SITES WERE EXAMINED.

Classifications were created by Dan Gibson. This list was created in June, 2022.

Unknown means that it is not possible to determine the qibla direction of the first mosque built on the site. Usually this is because a newer building has been built over the original building, making it impossible to measure the qibla direction of the original.

Petra means the Qibla direction is closer to Petra than to any of the other Qiblas.

Between means the Qibla direction is closer to the Between Qibla than to any of the other Qiblas. This Qibla was created by General Hajjaj.

Parallel means the Qibla direction is closer to the Parallel Qibla than to any of the other Qiblas. Gibson created this term because many of these Qiblas are parallel to a line drawn between Petra and Mecca.

Mecca means the Qibla direction is closer to a Meccan Qibla than to any of the other Qiblas.


Classification Year CE City Country Mosque Name lat lon
Unknown 622 Medina Saudi Arabia Quba Mosque 24.439619 39.617228
Unknown 623 Medina Saudi Arabia Prophets Mosque 24.467615 39.611376
Unknown 626 Medina Saudi Arabia Mosque of the Two Qiblas 24.484089 39.578658
Unknown 627 Janad Yemen Janad Early Mosque 13.66871 44.166391
Unknown 627 Samail Oman Al Mudhmar Mosque 23.311375 58.010684
Unknown 629 al-Kilabiyah Saudi Arabia Jowatha Mosque 25.469615 49.678872
Petra 600-699 Eritrea Eritrea Massawa Mosque 15.611981 39.480632
Unknown 627 Guangzhou China Guangzhou Mosque 23.125902 113.253737
Unknown 634 Dawmat al Jandal Saudi Arabia Umar ibn al-Khattab 29.811933 39.867393
Petra 637 Hama Syria Hama Great Mosque 35.134475 36.748679
Unknown 637 Mosoul Iraq Jonah Mosque 36.342902 43.126931
Unknown 638 Kufa Iraq Kufa Mosque 32.028611 44.400833
Petra 640 Palmyra Syria Palmyra Congregational 34.551112 38.268082
Petra 640 Um Jemal Jordan Um Jemal Congregational 32.324774 36.367963
Petra 642 Fustat Egypt Amr ibn -Al-As 30.010516 31.233376
Unknown 649 Jeddah Saudi Arabia Imam Shafi’I Mosque 21.486227 39.187469
Unknown 649 Larnaca Cyprus Hala Sultan Tekke 34.885283 33.610306
Unknown 671 Kairouan Tunisia Uqba Ibn Nafi’ 35.681714 10.103818
Petra 674 Jerusalem Israel/Occupied Dome of the Chain 31.778141 35.235736
Parallel 678 Mila Algeria Sidi Ghanem Mosque 36.450383 6.271528
Unknown 680 Tiberias Israel Tiberius Lower Mosque 32.776276 35.543996
Unknown 684 Jerusalem Israel/Occupied Dome of the Rock 31.778118 35.235286
Parallel 686 Biskra Algeria Mosque of Sidi ‘Ukba 34.749392 5.897497
Parallel 686 Biskra Algeria Graveyard of Sidi ‘Ukba 34.751291 5.895186
Petra 687 Humeima Jordan Qasr Humeima 29.9499 35.345925
Parallel 688 Zawailah Lybia Zawailah Congregational 26.165547 15.125548
Petra 697 Mecca Saudi Arabia Ka’ba 21.422523 39.826104
Petra 600-699 Amman Jordan Rajum Qasr Mosque 31.970292 35.838694
Petra 600-699 Amman Jordan Rajum Qasr 31.970725 35.838523
Petra 600-699 Samra Jordan Khirbat Samra 32.18078 36.16277
Petra 660-699 Amman Jordan Seven Sleepers Mosque 31.898928 35.973836
Petra 660-699 Husn Jordan Husn Umayyad Mosque 32.489716 35.880004
Unknown 600-699 Aqaba Jordan Aqaba Umayyad Mosque 29.530927 35.000388
Petra 600-699 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Mushash 31.813172 36.315719
Petra 600-699 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr El-Bai’j 32.368201 36.342485
Petra 600-699 Zeila Somolia Zeila Qiblatain Mosque 11.353723 43.471351
Petra 600-699 Sabata Jordan Khirbet Sabata 32.292694 35.851925
Petra 637-700 Bethlehem Israel Kathisma church 31.739257 35.212722
Unknown 600-699 Siraf Iran bn Abi Taleb Mosque 27.670362 52.337346
Unknown 700 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Burqu’ 32.608469 37.962325
Unknown 701 Ashdod-Yam Israel Ashdod Fort Mosque 31.78029 34.621629
Petra 705 San’a Yemen Sana’a Grand Mosque 15.353109 44.214939
Petra 705 Suf Jordan Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz 32.31528 35.83889
Petra 706 Khirbat al Minya Israel Khirbat al Minya 32.865088 35.536262
Between 706 Wasit Iraq Hajjaj Mosque 32.1904 46.303899
Between 642-710 Iraq Uskaf Bani Junayd Uskaf Bani Junayd 33.098713 45.037596
Between 700-744 Mafraq Jordan Qasr Al-Fedayn 32.345183 36.200684
Mecca 707 Jebal Says Syria Jebal Says Fortress 33.303148 37.359571
Between 708 Damghan Iran Masjid al-Tarik Khana 36.164323 54.354392
Petra 709 Jerusalem Israel/Occupied Al-Aqsa Mosque 31.776174 35.235713
Between 709 Damascus Syria Damascus Umayyad Mosque 33.511825 36.306588
Between 710 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Al-Kharana 31.728982 36.462795
Between 710 Amman Jordan Amman Umayyad Mosque 31.954671 35.934353
Between 712 Desert Castle Jordan Khann al Zabib Qasr 31.513294 36.100916
Petra 712 Desert Castle Jordan Khann Zabib Mosque 31.513294 36.100916
Between 712 Um Walid Jordan East Qasr Mosque 31.64681 35.899799
Unknown 712 Kalyan Uzbekistan Kalyan Mosque 39.775917 64.414086
Petra 712 Um Walid Jordan Walid East Qasr 31.646762 35.898635
Between 712 Um Walid Jordan Walid West Qasr 31.645127 35.893746
Unknown 712 Estakhr Iran Suliman Mosque 29.979923 52.91015
Petra 714 Jericho Israel/Occupied Khirbat al Mafjar 31.882747 35.459649
Between 714 Jericho Israel/Occupied Khirbat al Mafjar 31.881617 35.459655
Petra 714 Anjar Lebanon Anjar 33.732008 35.933831
Between 715 Aleppo Syria Aleppo Umayyad Mosque 36.19935 37.156841
Unknown 717 Manama Bahrain Masjid al Khamis 26.2082 50.5483
Petra 720 Qastal Jordan Qasr Qastal 31.746089 35.939875
Mecca 720 Resafa Syria Resafa Syria 35.628606 38.759662
Between 721 Bosra Syria Mosque of Bosra 32.521514 36.482897
Unknown 723 Muwaqqar Jordan Qasr Muwaqqar 31.812609 36.10375
Unknown 724 Baghdad Iraq Mosque of Rusafa, Iraq 33.330967 44.416165
Between 724 Palmyra Syria Palmyra Congregational 34.550905 38.268196
Unknown 725 Amman Jordan Grand Hussein Mosque 31.949711 35.93461
Petra 725 Jerash Jordan Jerash Umayyad Mosque 32.279156 35.891308
Between 726 Desert Castle Syria Qasr al Hayr al Gharbi 34.344381 37.584353
Mecca 727 Banbhore Pakistan Banbhore 24.752318 67.521944
unknown 728 Wadi Shireh Jordan Open Air Mosque 29.777571 35.609588
Between 728 Desert Castle Syria Qasr Hayr al Sharqi 35.073945 39.071061
Mecca 730 Amman Citadel Jordan Amman Umayyad Palace 31.955517 35.934136
Parallel 732 Tunis Tunisia Jami’ al-Zaytuna 36.797077 10.171363
Between 740 Baalbeck Lebanon Ba’albeck Mosque 34.007102 36.207294
Mecca 740 Tiberias Israel Tiberias Friday Mosque 32.776276 35.543996
Between 741 Humeima Jordan Humeima Tombs 29.949629 35.34612
Unknown 742 Xian China Huajuexiang Mosque 34.263306 108.936389
Mecca 743 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Bayir 30.761803 36.67929
Unknown 743 Shamakhi Azerbaijan Juma Mosque 40.626828 48.643781
Petra 743 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Mushatta 31.738172 36.009986
Between 743 Desert Castle Jordan Amra Bathhouse 31.801758 36.58727
Between 743 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Amra 31.804806 36.581528
Jerusalem 743 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Tubah 31.325786 36.571288
Between 744 Harran Turkey Harran University & Mosque 36.864805 39.031172
Mecca 748 Kufa Iraq Kufa Mosque 32.028611 44.400833
Petra 750 Siraf Iran Siraf Early Mosque 27.668227 52.33141
Unknown 753 Shibam Yemen Shibam Palace 15.926561 48.625508
Unknown 753 Beth Shean Israel Umayyad Mosque 1 32.503314 35.501948
Unknown 753 Beth Shean Israel Umayyad Mosque 2 32.502788 35.502788
Unknown 750-799 Tiberias Israel Tiberias Area D Mosque 32.774846 35.544627
Mecca 750-799 Tarsus-Gozlukule Turkey Tarsus-Gozlukule 36.911115 34.896216
Unknown 750-799 Ba’ayith Saudi Arabia Ba’ayith 26.049907 41.922744
Unknown 700-800 Haidra Tunisia Haidra Umayyad 35.565529 8.453322
Petra 700-750 Azraq Jordan Azraq Qasr 31.880208 36.827282
Unknown 700-750 Tulul al-Ukhaydir Iraq Tulul al-Ukhaydir 32.31667 43.33333
Unknown 700-750 Jericho Israel/Occupied Khirbat al-Mafjar 3 31.879695 35.460169
Unknown 700-750 Hubras Jordan Hubras Old Mosque 32.662793 35.824158
Unknown 707 Negev Highland Negev Sede Boker 30.881611 34.790761
Unknown 750-799 Abu Ghush Israel Umayyad Mosque 31.810562 35.107872
Petra 650-750 Hubras Jordan Hubras Umayyad Mosque 32.672086 35.841391
Petra 705-740 Hallabat Jordan Hammam Sarah Mosque 32.083627 36.36301
Unknown 700-750 Zeila Somolia Zeila Qiblatain Mosque (Rht) 11.353723 43.471351
Unknown 700-750 Negev Highland Negev Nahal ‘Oded 30.504929 34.707352
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Bor Bator 30.383096 34.610312
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Har Oded 30.508363 34.755601
Between 750-799 Negev Highland Negev Nahal Omer 30.544067 35.177101
Between 700-799 Mafraq Area Jordan Hayan Mishref 32.267299 36.153612
Petra 700-799 Mafraq Area Jordan Hayan Mishref 32.267299 36.153612
Petra 700-799 Sa’d Jordan Sa’d North 32.341605 35.980332
Petra 700-799 Sa’d Jordan Sa’d South 32.339167 35.981111
unknown 800-899 Sama Rusan Jordan Khirbet Burz 32.623889 35.799861
unknown 700-799 Rahat Negev Nahal Peher Mosque 31.3723 34.7651
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Nahal ‘Arod 30.496555 34.707789
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Beer Karkom 1 30.289766 34.766608
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Beer Karkom2 30.28913 34.767415
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Ramat Barnea 30.681938 34.497799
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Horvat Sharav 30.752364 34.899499
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Nahal Hazaz 30.893767 34.863587
Unknown 700-799 Negev Highland Negev Nahal La’ana 30.730121 34.599858
Unknown 701-760 Negev Shivta Shivta Mosque 30.880825 34.631229
Unknown 700-799 Methala, Kerala India Cheraman Juma 10.223355 76.166579
Unknown 700-799 Kilakarai India Kilakarai Old Mosque 9.234391 78.7836
Unknown 700-799 Kilakarai India Palaiya Jumma Palli 9.229489 78.785983
Mecca 750-799 Sindh Pakistan Muhammad bin Qasim 27.645815 68.93636
Between 700-799 Antakya Turkey Habibi Neccar 36.201553 36.165468
Between 700-799 Gujarat India Barwada Mosque 21.692053 72.270851
Between 700-799 Yamama Saudi Arabia Yamama Great Mosque 24.192165 47.352019
Between 700-799 Sal Jordan Sal Mosque 32.570451 35.911254
Between 700-799 Bushra Jordan Bushra Great Mosque 32.558159 35.894752
Between 700-799 Aydoun Jordan Aydoun Grand Mosque 32.506175 35.857349
Between 700-799 Tibnah Jordan Tibnah Umayyad 32.477252 35.727335
Unknown 700-799 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Uweinid 31.784907 36.733661
Between 700-799 Azrak Jordan Qasr Ain as-Sil 31.894204 36.845879
Between 700-799 Azraq Jordan Azraq Fort Mosque 31.880297 36.827551
Unknown 750-799 Shanga Kenya Shanga Friday -2.125483 41.065378
Between 700-799 Mazari Sharif Afghanistan Blue Mosque 36.709 67.110842
Mecca 750-799 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Aseikhin 31.94615 36.951919
Mecca 750-799 Ain Beni Hasan Jordan Beni Hasan Mosque 32.270165 36.055454
Unknown 700-799 Hangzhou China Fenghuang Mosque 30.2452 120.170538
Petra 700-799 Be’er Ora Israel Be’er Ora Qiblatain East 29.716765 34.984862
Mecca 750-799 Be’er Ora Israel Be’er Ora Qiblatain South 29.716765 34.984862
Petra 700-799 Bowshar Oman Sahi Ramdah Mosque 23.54324 58.398363
Petra 700-799 Ibra Oman Qiblatain Mosque 22.701938 58.527554
Parallel 700-799 Beni Bouabdellah Morocco Yogharta Mosque 34.821261 -2.503175
Between 700-799 Erbil Iraq Bazaar Qaisariya 36.190358 44.010229
Unknown 700-799 Erbil Iraq Erbil Grand Mosque 36.191444 44.009583
Petra 700-799 Erbil Iraq Al-Sawaf Mosque Grounds 36.183528 44.003195
Petra 700-799 Samarqand Uzbekistan Ulugh Beg Mosque 39.654781 66.975731
Unknown 700-799 Salalah Oman Job’s Tomb Shrine 17.111902 53.993778
Petra 700-799 Samarkand Uzbekistan Bibi Samarkand 39.660703 66.980085
Petra 700-799 Kilwa Tanzania Kilwa -8.959146 39.498294
Unknown 700-799 Samarkand Uzbekistan Afrasiab Phase 1 39.669483 66.990691
Mecca 762 Baghdad Iraq Mosque of Mansur 33.300737 44.411652
Mecca 750-799 Al-Bara Syria AlBara Mosque 5.688414 36.531234
Mecca 764 Kufa Iraq Qasr Ukhaydir 32.439732 43.602775
Parallel 770 Ribat Tunisia Ribat Fortress 35.827625 10.638728
Parallel 772 Tauste Spain Tauste Graveyard 41.916889 -1.254817
Mecca 772 Ishfan Iran Grand Mosque 32.669696 51.685189
Between 772 Raqqa Syria Raqqa Mosque 35.951949 39.020931
Petra 780 Zoozan Iran Malek Mosque 34.355441 59.876897
Petra 786 Najaf Iraq Ali Shrine 31.995885 44.314421
Parallel 700-799 Algeria Abdul Qader Yagouri 30.13357 -2.164013
Parallel 784 Cordoba Spain Cordoba Mosque 37.879041 -4.779551
Unknown 785 Tepe Madresh Iran Tepe Madresh 36.165943 58.811741
Unknown 796 Ghaen Iran Ghaen Jamia 33.725782 59.193121
Unknown 799 Baghdad Iraq Shrine of Kazmiyya 33.380388 44.338125
Parallel 800 Dougga Tunisia Dougga Mosque 36.422733 9.218833
Unknown 801 alRabadha Saudi Arabia alRabadha Area C 24.632398 41.289831
Mecca 801 Kharab Sayyar Syria Kharab Sayyar Mosque 36.589464 39.561229
Unknown 802 Siraf Iran Site C Mosque 27.667838 52.341286
Between 806 Heraqlah Syria Heraqlah 35.95673 38.933084
Unknown 806 Tel Beth Shean Israel Mihrab in Church 32.504391 35.503348
Between 809 Susiya Negev Qasr Susiya 31.405529 35.102917
Mecca 817 Mashhad Iran Imam Riza Shrine 36.287371 59.614476
Unknown 820 Zabid Yemen Al-Asha’ir Mosque 14.195921 43.312618
Unknown 827 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Hallabat 32.092925 36.327991
Mecca 827 Desert Castle Jordan Qasr Hallabat Mosque 32.092703 36.328439
Parallel 828 Fez Morocco Moulay Idriss II 34.06487 -4.974803
Parallel 835 Merida Spain Merida Fort Mosque 38.914912 -6.346902
Parallel 836 Kairoun Tunisia Grand Mosque of Kairouan 35.681711 10.103819
Mecca 847 Samarra Iraq Great Mosque of Samarra 34.205926 43.87985
Unknown 848 Cordoba Spain Mezquita de Cordoba 37.879064 -4.781285
Parallel 850 Susa Tunisia Great Mosque of Susa 35.826878 10.639742
Unknown 850 Sabz Pushan Iran Sabz Pushan 36.03303 58.999801
Parallel 850 Surt Lybia Surt Old Mosque 31.207693 16.588718
Parallel 850 Sfax Tunisia Great Mosque of Sfax 34.735887 10.760843
Unknown 856 Bastam Iran Ba-Yazid Mosque 36.7916 46.0173
Mecca 859 Samarra Iraq Abu Dulaf Mosque 34.360868 43.80144
Parallel 859 Fez Morocco University of al-Qarawiyyin 34.06491 -4.973497
Parallel 866 Kairoun Tunisia Mosque of the Three Doors 35.678909 10.103867
Unknown 871 Shibam Aqyan Yemen Shibam Aqyan 15.509424 43.902729
Mecca 876 Cairo Egypt Ibn Tulun Mosque 30.028684 31.2495
Parallel 800-899 Nimes France Nimes Graveyard 43.833353 4.351409
Parallel 800-899 Zaragoza Spain Zaragoza Mosque 41.654499 -0.875786
Parallel 800-899 Toledo Spain El Salvador Mosque 39.856273 -4.026072
Unknown 800-899 Cordoba Spain El Naranjal de Almagro 37.875339 -4.793393
Unknown 800-899 Volubilis Morocco Volubilis Mosque 34.072221 -5.555805
Unknown 800-850 Samarkand Uzbekistan Afrasiab Phase 2 39.669483 66.990691
Unknown 800-899 Arja Oman Arja Copper Mine Mosque 24.37719 56.450441
Between 800-899 Basra Iraq Basra Great Mosque 30.505133 47.814902
Unknown 800-899 Khirbat Abu Suwwana Palestine Khirbat Abu Suwwana 31.766268 35.300383
Unknown 800-899 Eshtemo’a Palestine Eshtemo’a 31.401072 35.067306
Petra 800-899 Jarash Saudi Arabia Jarash Mosque 18.202619 42.824009
Unknown 800-899 Sederot Israel Old Mosque 31.534786 31.534786
Petra 800-899 Bukhara Uzbeckistan Magokki Attor 39.773227 64.418328
Mecca 800-899 Asnaq Iran Asnaq Friday Mosque 38.061951 47.18928
Mecca 800-899 Fahraj Iran Masjid i Jami’ Fahraj 31.764283 54.581417
Mecca 800-899 Balkh Province Afghanistan Nine Domed Mosque 36.730042 66.885285
Mecca 800-899 Siraf Iran Siraf Congregational 27.667298 52.335089
unknown 800-899 Siraf Iran Siraf Site F 27.670651 52.309019
unknown 800-899 Siraf Iran Siraf Site M2 27.668118 52.31744
Mecca 800-899 Al-Balid Mosque Oman Salalah Al-Balid Mosque 17.005985 54.130585
Parallel 800-899 Houmt souk Tunisia Mosque with graveyard 33.874462 10.866349
Between 800-899 Kashan Iran Kashan Jamia 33.983487 51.443178
Petra 800-899 Kashan Iran Soltani Madrasa 33.98286 51.447866
Petra 800-899 Kashan Iran Agha Bozorg 33.978204 51.445279
Between 800-899 Sorkhe Iran Sorkhe Mosque 35.464113 53.213335
Petra 800-899 Hulbuk Tajikistan Hulbuk Fortress Mosque 37.777524 69.556695
Between 800-899 al-Mabiyyat Saudi Arabia al-Mabiyyat 26.503742 38.053196
Between 800-899 al Rabadha Saudi Arabia al Rabadha Mosque 24.630877 41.28969
Between 800-899 Asham Saudi Arabia Asham 19.610885 41.211123
Between 800-899 Abarkuh Iran Biroon Mosque 31.124929 53.295318
Mecca 912 Wasit Iraq Wasit Upper Mosque 32.1904 46.303899
Parallel 916 Mahdia Algeria Great Mosque of Mahdia 35.503972 11.071964
Unkown 922 Ajdabiya Libya Ajdabiya Fatimid Palace 30.757695 20.220012
Parallel 944 Beja Tunisia Medjez el Bab 36.725183 9.18285
Parallel 973 Tripoli Lybia al-Naqah Mosque 32.895391 13.178872
Mecca 1011 Janad Yemen Janad Later Mosque 13.66871 44.166391
Parallel 1028 Sale Morocco Mosque 34.040336 -6.827343
Petra 1048 Raja Gir Pakistan Odigram Mosque 34.743141 72.314213
Between 1100 Nitl Jordan Nitl Mosque 31.652248 35.861363
Parallel 1150 Udayas Morocco Udayas Graveyard 34.02987 -6.841498
Parallel 1151 Udayas Morocco Kasbah Citadel Mosque 34.032106 -6.836129
Parallel 1142 Taza Morocco Great Mosque 34.212503 -4.018969
Parallel 1184 Marrakech Morocco Koutoubia Mosque 31.623757 -7.993366
Parallel 1184 Marrakech Morocco Kasbah Mosque 31.617706 -7.988705
Parallel 1195 Rabat Morocco Hassan Tower Mosque 34.023814 -6.822614
Petra 1199 Sultan Yacoub Lebanon Sultan Yacoub Tomb 33.644314 35.859829
Petra 1199 Sultan Yacoub Lebanon Sultan Yacoub Mosque 33.6444 35.859984
Petra 1294 Tripoli Lebanon Mansouri Great Mosque 34.43452 35.8425
Parallel 1196 Tanfier Morocco Grand Mosque of Tangier 35.78584 -5.809504
Jerusalem 1200 Harat Afghanistan Herat Great Mosque 34.344932 62.193025
unknown 1318 Ramla Israel White Mosque 31.927568 34.86597
Between 1337 Abarquh iran Friday Mosque 31.130353 53.285296
Between 1350 Guangzhou China Guangzhou Mosque 23.125902 113.253737
Between 1395 Ghaen Iran Ghaen Jamia 33.725782 59.193121
Between 1500 Kashan Iran Mianchal Mosque 33.985076 51.448252


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