Chapter 14

Chad Doell & Dan Gibson May 2022


There is a term in Islam which was a fundamental part of the religion in its dawning years, and which is seldom used today— Ḥanīfiyyah. The word hanīf (Arabic: حنيف) meaning to refuse, renunciate or to turn one’s back on something. Ḥanīfiyyah is a concept which helps us to consider both what the first Muslims were turning from, as well as what they were turning toward: the Religion of Abraham. In the early Islamic records, the religion of Abraham is always associated with the term Ḥanīfiyyah, not Islam or Muslim. This chapter examines what we know of the religion of Abraham, as well as the pilgrimage to Petra, and the location of muzdelifa in Petra.

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