A new book is in the works. Once the book is complete it will be released here free of charge as a pdf file. (Hopefully by the end of 2022)

Chapter 1 Abstract

When studying Islam, there are two tracks of evidence: Manuscript and Archaeological Evidence. For centuries historians dealt almost exclusively with manuscript evidence. But the manuscript evidence has issues. There are virtually no manuscripts from the first two centuries of Islam. The only thing that survives is the Qur’an, and its historicity is currently being challenged. In the last couple of decades, Islamic Archaeology is coming into its own. And the archaeological records tell us a different story than the manuscripts. While much of the manuscript evidence is sound, archeological records show us that there are geographical problems. It seems there were two Meccas. One in southern Jordan, and a later one in Saudi Arabia.


Sample illustration for this chapter

Sample illustration for this chapter


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