Navigation and the Qibla #1 Cardinal Directions

How did the Early Muslims calculate the Qibla direction of their mosques? Topics include: Introduction, Challenges, Resource Materials, Finding the four cardinal directions: North, South, East, West. Oops, I just had an error pointed out to me concerning the dates I provided for the Sana’a manuscript. (09:30) which I said had been carbon dated to 570-665 AD. Those are the dates for the Birmingham manuscript. Sorry for giving the wrong manuscript. The Sana’a manuscript upper text is dated by Dr. Puin to the time of al-Walid, 705-715 AD.

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