New Book Release: Let The Stones Speak Download PDF

This is the full bibliography for the book Let the Stones Speak by Dan Gibson. Where possible links have been included to locations where you can access source material.



Abu Dawud, Sulayman ibn al-Ash’ath. “Sunan Abi Dawud.” Accessed December 12, 2022.

Ibn ʿAbd-Rabbih, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Al-ʿIqd al-farīd. Edited by Aḥmad Amīn, Aḥmad al-Zayn, and Ibrāhīm al-Abyārī. Cairo, 1940.

Addision, Erin. “Is this Sacred or What? – The Holy Place & Tourism Destination at Jabal Haroun, Petra Region, Jordan.” In The Routledge Handbook of Halal Hospitality and Islamic Tourism, edited by C. Michael Hall & Girish Prayag. 224-236. Philadelphia: Routledge, 2018.

Algabri, Salah. “Coins of revolutionist Abdullah bin Muawiya al-Talbi (127-130 H / 744-747 AD).” ResearchGate. Last modified October, 2018.

Anderson, Mark. “Is Mecca or Petra Islam’s true birthplace?” Understanding Islam. Posted September 27, 2018.

Artsruni, Thomas. History of the Artsrunik’. Translated by Robert W. Thompson. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985.

Ibn al-Athīr. al-Kāmil fi al-Tarīkh. Volume 7. Beirut: House of Knowledge Books, 1987.

Augé, Christian, François Renel, Laurent Borel, and Chrystelle March. “New Excavations in Qasr al-Bint at Petra.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities in Jordan (ADAJ) (2002): 309-313.

Avni, Gideon. “Early Mosques in the Negev Highlands: New Archaeological Evidence on Islamic Penetration of Southern Palestine.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 294 (May 1994): 83-100.

El-Awaisi, Khalid. “The Quranic Prophecy of the Defeat and Victory of the Byzantines.” Journal of Islamic Jerusalem Studies 15 (Summer 2015): 1-32.

Al-Azraqi, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah. Kitab Akhbar Mecca. Giza: Maktaba Alnafezah, 2013.

Bae, Chul-hyun. “Aramaic as a Lingua Franca During the Persian Empire (538-333 B.C.E.).” Journal of Universal Language 5 (2004): 1-20.

Baerlein, Henry. The Singing Caravan: Some echoes of Arabian Poetry. Godshill: Millersford Books, 1910.

Al-Balādhurī, Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā. The Origins of the Islamic State: Being a Translation from the Arabic Accompanied with Annotations, Geographic and Historic Notes of the Kitâb Futûḥ al-Buldân. Translated by Philip Khuri Hitti. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2011.

Benabbès, Ahmed. “Les premiers raids arabes en Numidie byzantine: questions toponymiques.” In Identités et Cultures dans l’Algérie Antique, edited by Claude Briand-Ponsart. Mont-Saint-Aignan: Presses Universitaires de Rouen et du Havre, 2005.

Benmicia, Nawal. “The Restoration and Reuse of Historical Monuments: Case of the Mosque of Sidi Ghanem.” Algerian Journal of Engineering Architecture and Urbanism 1, no. 3 (2017): 43-54.

Berggren, J. Lennart and Alexander Jones. Ptolemy’s Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020.

Al-Biruni. “Kitab Tahdid nihayat al-amakin.” Majallat Maʻhad al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʻArabīyah 8 (1962). Edited by P. Bulgakov. Quoted in David A. King. “Al-Bazdawi on the Qibla In Early Islamic Transoxania.” Journal for the History of Arabic Science 7, 1-2 (1983).

Bouchier, E. S. A Short History of Antioch: 300 B.C.-A.D. 1268. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1921. Brock, Sebastian. “An Introduction to Syriac Studies.” In Horizons in Semitic Studies: Articles for the Students, edited by J. H. Eaton, 1-33. Birmingham: University of Birmingham, 1980.

Brubaker, Daniel A. Corrections in Early Qur’an Manuscripts: Twenty Examples. Lovettsville: Think and Tell Press, 2019.

Al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl. “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī.” Accessed December 12, 2022.

Castro, Mariana. The Function of the Roman Army in Southern Arabia Petraea. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2018.

Charles, Michael. “The Elephants of Aksum: In Search of the Bush Elephant in Late Antiquity.” Journal of Late Antiquity 11, no. 1 (Spring 2018): 166-192.

Charles, R.H. translator. “Jubilees 20.” Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha and Sacred Writings. Accessed October 28, 2022.

Charles. R.H. translator. “The Expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael (xvii. 1-14).” Sacred Texts. Accessed September 29, 2022.

Chronique Archéologique en Syrie 4. Damascus: Ministry of Culture, Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums, 2010.

Cohen, Jacob. “A Power Primer.” Psychological Bulletin 112 (1992): 155-159.

Creswell, K.A.C. The Ka’ba in A.D. 608. Oxford: The Society of Antiquities in London, 1951.

Crone, Patricia. “The First-Century Concept of Hiǧra.” Arabica 41 (November 1994): 352-387.

Crone, Patricia and Michael Cook. Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World. London: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Dash, Glen. “Occam’s Egyptian razor: the equinox and the alignment of the pyramids.” The Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture 2 (2017): 1-8.

Da-Sheng, Chen. “Chinese-Iranian Relations vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T’ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties.” Encyclopedia Iranica, last updated October 14, 2011.

Ibn Abu Dawud. “Kitab Al-Masahif.” Internet Archive. Last modified June 22, 2020.

Demichelis, Marco. “Chapter Five: Kharijites and Qarmaṭians: Islamic Pre-Democratic Thought, A Political-Theological Analysis.” In Religion and Representation: Islam and Democracy, edited by Ingrid Mattson, Paul Nesbitt-Larking and Nawaz Tahir, 101-127. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015. Durie, Mark. “On the Origin of Qur’anic Arabic.”, accessed September 11, 2022.

Durie, Mark. The Qur’an and its Biblical Reflexes: Investigations into the Genesis of a Religion. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2018.

Eliash, Joseph. “Ali b. Abi Talib in Ithna – Ashari Shi I belief.” PhD dissertation. University of London, 1966.

Eshel, Esther. “The Onomasticon of Mareshah in the Persian and Hellenistic Periods.” In Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century B.C.E., edited by Oded Lipschitz, Gary N. Knoppers, and Rainer Albertz, 145-156. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

Farajat, Suleiman and Sami Nawafleh. “Report on the Al-Khazna countryard excavation at Petra (2003 season).” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 49 (2005): 373-393.

Fiema, Zbigniew T. “Historical Context.” In The Petra Papyri I, edited by Jaakko Frösén, Antti Arjava, and Marjo Lehtinen, 1-4. Amman: American Center of Oriental Research, 2002.

Fiema, Zbigniew T. “The Jabal Hārūn Site: 1000 Years of Continuity and Change.” In Petra – The Mountain of Aaron II: The Nabataean Sanctuary and the Byzantine Monastery, edited by Zbigniew T. Fiema, Jaakko Frösén, and Maija Holappa, 539-582. Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 2016.

Fiema, Zbigniew T., Ahmad al-Jallad, Michael C. A. MacDonald, and Laïla Nehmé. “Provincia Arabia: Nabataea, the Emergence of Arabic as a Written Language, and Graeco-Arabica.” In Arabs and Empires before Islam, edited by Greg Fisher, 373-433. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Flensted-Jensen, Hellenika P. “The Bottiaians and their Poleis.” In Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis. Volume 1. Edited by Morgens Herman Hansen and Kurt Raaflaub, 109-119. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1995.

Florovsky, Fr. Georges. “The Byzantine Fathers of the Fifth Century.” Holy Trinity Mission. Accessed September 8, 2022,

Ford, Simon Samuel. “Ordination and Episcopacy in the Severan-Jacobite Church: AD 518-c. 588.” PhD dissertation. University of Oxford, 2016.

Forster, Charles. The Historical Geography of Arabia; Or, the Patriarchal Evidences of Revealed Religion. Volume 1. London: Duncan and Malcolm, 1844.

Frösén, Jaakko. “The Petra papyri: Information and significance.” In Petra: a city forgotten and rediscovered. Edited by Jaakko Frösén and Zbigniew Fiema, 18-22. Helsinki: Amos Anderson Arts Museum, 2002.

Frösén, Jaakko and Zbigniew T. Fiema. “The Finnish Jabal Haroun Project 1999.” Finnish Jabal Haroun Project. Accessed May 26, 2022.

Gagos, Traianos and Jaakko Frösén. “Petra Papyri.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 42 (1998): 471-481.

Gaster, Moses translator. The Asatir: The Samaritan Book of the ‘Secrets of Moses.’ London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1927.

Genequand, Denis. “Some Thoughts on Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi, its Dam, its Monastery and the Ghassanids.” Levant 38, no. 1 (June 2006): 63-84. doi:10.1179/lev.2006.38.1.63

Gibson, Dan. Early Islamic Qiblas: A survey of mosques built between 1 AH/622 C.E. and 263 AH/876 C.E. Saskatoon: Independent Scholar’s Press, 2017.

Gibson, Dan. Qur’anic Geography. Saskatoon: Independent Scholars Press, 2010.

Gibson, Daniel, Peter Harremoës, and Joseph Hannon. “The names of Petra as synonyms and epithets of Mecca.” Unpublished manuscript. January 20, 2022, Microsoft Word.

Goolam, N.M.I. “The Timbuktu Manuscripts – Rediscovering a Written Source of African Law in the Era of the African Renaissance.” Fundamina 12, no. 2 (January 1, 2006): 29-50.

Grabar, Oleg. “Upon Reading Al-Azraqi.” Muqarnas 3 (1985): 1-7. doi:10.2307/1523080

“Grave and Tomb of the Prophet Muhammad (The Sacred Chamber).” Hajj & Umrah Planner. Accessed April 4, 2022.

Greatrex, Geoffrey and Samuel N. C. Lieu. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 363-628. London: Routledge, 2002.

Green, Tamara M. The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions in Harran. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 1992.

Hafiz, Ali. Chapters from the history of Madina. Jeddah: al-Madina Printing & Publication Co, 1987.

Ibn al-Ḥajjāj, Muslim. “Sahih Muslim 1260.” Accessed December 16, 2022.

Al-Hakam, Ibn ‘Abd. The history of the conquest of Egypt, North Africa and Spain: Known as the Futuh Misr of Ibn ‘Abd al-Haka. Translated by Charles Cutler Torrey. Dehli: Gyan Books, 2018.

Haldon, John. The Byzantine Wars. Stroud: The History Press, 2012.

Al-Hamdani. Geographie der Arabischen Halbinsel. Translated by David Heinrich Muller. Berlin: E. J. Brill, 1884.

Harl, K. W. “Sacrifice and Pagan Belief in Fifth- and Sixth-Century Byzantium.” Past & Present 128 (August 1990): 7-27.

Harremoës, Peter. “Rate Distortion Theory for Descriptive Statistics.” arXiv. Updated February 16, 2022.

Hatzopoulos, M.B. and L.D. Loukopoulou. Morrylos, cité de la Crestonie. Paris: Athènes, 1989.

Hawkins, Gerald S. and David A. King. “On the Orientation of the Ka’ba.” Journal for the History of Astronomy 8 (1982): 102-109.

Healey, J.F. The Religion of the Nabataeans: A Conspectus. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

Heuzy, L. Alexandre. Mission archéologique de Macédoine. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1876.

Hill, E. “Weilue: The Peoples of the West.” UW Departments Web Server. Accessed October 26, 2022.


Hoyland, R.G. “New Documentary Texts and The Early Islamic State.” Bulletin Of The School Of Oriental And African Studies 69, no. 3 (2006): 395-416.

Hoyland, R.G. Seeing Islam As Others Saw It: A Survey And Evaluation Of Christian, Jewish And Zoroastrian Writings On Early Islam. New Jersey: Darwin Press, 1997.

Hoyland, R.G. “The Content and Context of Early Arabic Inscriptions.” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic & Islam 21, no. 3 (1997): 77-102.

Ibn Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by A. Guillaume. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Ilci, Veli, Ibrahim Murat Ozulu, Ersoy Arslan, and Reha Metin Alkan. “Investigation on the Accuracy of Existing Qibla Directions of the Mosques from Different Periods: A Case Study in Corum City, Turkey.” Technical Gazette 25 (2018): 1642-1649.

Isler, Martin, “An Ancient Method of Finding and Extending Direction,” in Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 26 (1989): 191-206.

Islamic Awareness. “A Pre-Islamic Nabataean Inscription Mentioning The Place Yathrib.” Last updated February 18, 2018.

Islamic Awareness. “An Inscription Mentioning the Rebuilding of Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām, 78 AH / 697-698 CE.” Last updated April 1, 2018.

Issar, Arie S. and Mattanyah Zohar. Climate Change: Environment and History of the Near East. 2 ed. New York: Springer, 2007.

Al-Jāḥiẓ. Rasā’il al-Jāḥiẓ. Edited by H. al-Sandubi. Cairo: 1933. pg. 296

Al-Al-Jāḥiẓ. Rasā’il al-Jāḥiẓ, Arabic -

Al-Jallad, Ahmad. “Graeco-Arabica I: The Southern Levant.” In Arabic in Context, edited by Ahmad Al-Jallad, 99-188. Leiden: Brill, 2017. Al-Jallad, Ahmad. “The Arabic of Petra.” Accessed November 23, 2022.

Jeffrey, Arthur. “Ghevond’s Text of the Correspondence between ‘Umar II and Leo III.” The Harvard Theological Review 37, no. 4 (October 1944): 269-332.

Jeffery, Arthur. The Qur’an as Scripture. New York: Russel F. Moor Company, 1952. Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Translated by Willian Whiston. London: University of Cambridge, 1737. Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. Edinburgh: T. Nelson and Sons, 1895. Kaegi, Walter E. Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Ibn Al-Kalbi, Hisham. The Book of Idols. Translated by Nabih Amin Faris. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Kasnoff, Craig. “Asian and African Elephant.” Bagheera. accessed October 25, 2022.

Ibn Kathir. “Tafsir Surah An-Najm.” Accessed October 28, 2022. []](])

Ibn Kathir. The Life of the Prophet Muḥammad Volume IV. Translated by Trevor Le Gassick. Lebanon: Garnet Publishing, 2006.

Kennedy, Hugh. The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Boston: De Capo Press, 2007. Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to Eleventh Century. 3 ed. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Kennedy, Hugh. When Baghdad Ruled the Muslim World: The Rise and Fall of Islam’s Greatest Dynasty. Cambridge: De Capo Press, 2005.

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa. “A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta Africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine.” Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin 40, no. 209 (May 2022): 0-30.

Al Khalifa, Mai Mohammed. The Qarmaṭians: From Concept to State. Translated by Abdullah Richard Lux. Muharraq: Shaikh Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Khalifa Center for Culture and Research, 2019.

Khan, Mohammaed Alal. The Unveiling Origin of Mecca. Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2021. Kim, Seonyoung. “The Arabic Letters of the Byzantine Emperor Leo III to the Caliph ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz: an Edition, Translation, and Commentary.” PhD diss. The Catholic University of America, 2017.

Al Kindy. The Apology of Al Kindy: Written in the Court of Al Mamun (A.H. 215; A.D. 830). Translated by Sir William Muir. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1882. King, David A. “Astronomical Alignments in Medieval Islamic Religious Architecture.” Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics 385, 1 (1982): 303-312.

King, David A. “Astronomy and Islamic Society: Qibla, Gnomonics and Timekeeping.” Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science 1 (1996), 128-184.

King, David A. Review of Early Islamic Qiblas: A survey of mosques built between 1 AH/622 C.E. and 263 AH/876 C.E. (with maps, charts, and photographs), by Dan Gibson, Suhayl – International Journal for the History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation 16-17 (2018-2019): 347-366.

King, David A. “Folk Astronomy in the Service of Religion: The Case of Islam.” In Astronomies and Cultures: Papers Derived from the Third “Oxford” International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy, edited by C. L. N. Ruggles and Nicholas J. Saunders, 124-138. Niwot: University of Colorado Press, 1990.

King, David A. “From Petra back to Mecca – From ‘Pibla’ back to Qibla.” Accessed July 6, 2022.

King, David A. “Historical mosque orientations: How to interpret & how not, A preliminary study.” Accessed October 15, 2022.

King, David A. “Islamic Sacred Geography and Finding the Qibla by the Sun and Stars: a Survey of the Historical Sources with an Appendix on some Recent Fallacies concerning Mosque Orientations.” Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 22, (2020): 51-142.

King, David A. “The Petra fallacy: Early mosques do face the Sacred Kaaba in Mecca but Dan Gibson doesn’t know how.” Accessed July 6, 2022.

King, David A. “The Sacred Direction in Islam: A Study of the Interaction of Religion and Science in the Middle Ages.” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 10, 4 (1985): 315-328.

King, David A. “Too Many Cooks…A New Account of the Earliest Muslim Geodetic Measurements.” Suhayl: International Journal for the History of the Exact Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation 1 (2000): 207-241.

Kister, M. J. “The Campaign of Ḥulubān: A New Light on the Expedition of Abraha.” Le Muséon 78 (1965): 425-436.

Koenen, Ludwig. “The carbonized archive from Petra.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 9 (1996): 177-188. doi:10.1017/S104775940001655X

Lecker, Michael. Review of Qur’anic Geography, by Dan Gibson, Journal of Semitic Studies 59 (2014): 465-467.

Lecker, Michael. “The Death of the Prophet Muḥammad’s Father: Did Wāqidī Invent Some of the Evidence?” Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 145, no. 1 (1995): 9–27.

Lewis, C.S. Fern-Seed and Elephants. Samizdat University Press, 2014. Lewis, Naphtali, Yigael Yadin and Jonas C. Greenfield. Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters : Greek Papyri. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1989.

Lindstedt, Illka. “Religious warfare and martyrdom in Arabic graffiti (70s–110s AH/690s–730s CE).” Accessed January 23, 2023,

Lipman, Jonathan N. Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.

Livieratos, Evangelos. “On the Study of the Geometric Properties of Historical Cartographic Representations.” Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization 41, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 165-176. doi:10.3138/RM86-3872-8942-61P4

Lüling, Günter. A Challenge to Islam for Reformation. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishing House, 2022.

Luxenberg, Christoph. The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran. Berlin: Verlag Hans Schiler, 2007.

Magister, Sandro. “The Virgins and the Grapes: the Christian Origins of the Koran.” Stanford Libraries Web Archive Portal. Captured April 17, 2009.

Ibn Majah. “Jami’ at-Tirmidhi 3713.” Accessed October 28, 2022.

Ibn Majah. “Sunan Ibn Majah 121.” Accessed October 28, 2022.

Manoledakis, Manolis and Evangelos Livieratos. “On the digital placement of Aegae, the first capital of ancient Macedonia, according to Ptolemy’s Geographia.” e-Perimetron 2, no. 1 (Winter 2007), 31-41.

Maqrīzī Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī, and Jamāl al-Dīn Shayyāl Maqrīzi. Itti’az al-hunafa. Cairo: Dār al-Fikr al-‘Arabī, 1948.

Marr, John S., Elias J. Hubbard and John Cathey. “The Year of the Elephant.” Wikiversity Journal of Medicine 2, no. 1 (April 2015): doi:10.15347/wjm/2015.003

Mayer, Tamar and Suleiman Ali Mourad. Jerusalem: Idea and Reality. Philadelphia: Routledge, 2008.

Mourad, Suleiman Ali. Early Islam between Myth and History: al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī (d. 110H/728CE) and the Formation of His Legacy in Classical Islamic Scholarship. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Al-Masʿūdī, Alī Ibn al-Ḥusain. Kitāb al-Tanbīh wa l-ishrāf: M.J. de Goeje’s Classic Edition (1894) with Indices and Glossary to BGA I: 7–8. Edited by M.J. de Goeje. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

Al-Mas'ūdī, Alī Ibn al-Ḥusain. Les Prairies D’or. vol. 5. Translated by C. Barbier de Meynard. Paris: Societe Asiatique, 1869.

Mir, Mustansir and مستنصر مير. “Elephants, Birds of Prey, and Heaps of Pebbles: Farāhī’s Interpretation of Sūrat al-Fīl/ أفيال وطيور جارحة وأکوام من الحصى: تفسير فراهي لسورة الفيل.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 7, no. 1 (2005): 33–47.

Modéran, Yves. “Kusayla, l’Afrique et les Arabes.” In Identités et Cultures dans l’Algérie Antique, edited by Claude Briand-Ponsart, 423-457. Mont-Saint-Aignan: Presses Universitaires de Rouen et du Havre, 2005.

Mohammadi, Adeel. “The Destruction of al-Baqi’: A Case for Wahhabi Iconoclasm.” University of Toronto Undergraduate Journal of Middle East Studies 8 (2015): 47-56.

Morris, Ian D. “Mecca and Macoroba.” Al-ʿUṣūr al-Wusṭā 26, no. 1 (2018): 1-60. doi:10.7916/alusur.v26i1.6850

Al-Mubarakpuri, Safiur-Rahman. The Sealed Nectar (Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtum): Biography of the Noble Prophet. Mississauga: Darussalam, 2008.

Al-Muheisen, Zeidoun and Pauline Piraud-Fournet. “A large Nabataean-Roman period house at adh-Dharih.” Studies in the history and archaeology of Jordan 11 (2013): 833-846.

Müller, Karl. Klaudiou Ptolemaiou Geographike hyphegesis - Claudii Ptolemæi Geographia. Edited by Alfredo Firmin Didot. Parisiis, 1883.

Muller, Walter W. “Outline of the History of Ancient Southern Arabia.” Yemenweb. Archived March 3, 2016.

Al-Muqaddasi. Al-Muqaddasi. Translated by G. S. A. Ranking and R. F. Azoo. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1897.

Al-Najdī, Aḥmad ibn Mājid. Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean Before the Coming of the Portuguese, being a translation of Kitab al-Fawa’id di usul al-bahr wa’l-qawa’id. Translated by G. R. Tibbetts. London: The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1971.

Al-Nasā'ī, Abū Abd ar-Raḥmān Aḥmad ibn Shuayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān. “Sunan an-Nasa’i 49.” Accessed October 28, 2022.

Nasarat, Mohammed and Sa’ad A. Twissi. “The titles of Petra in the sixth century: the evidence from the Petra papyri.” Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 27, no. 2 (November 2016): 208-214. doi:10.1111/aae.12079

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954.

Negev, Avraham. “The Architecture of Mampsis: Final Report: Volume II: The Late Roman and Byzantine Periods.” Qedem 27 (1988): i-xviii, 1-116.

Netton, Ian Richard. Muslim Neoplatonists: An Introduction to the Thought of the Brethren of Purity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.

Nicolle, David. Yarmuk AD 636: The Muslim conquest of Syria. Long Island City: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2006.

Northedge, Alastair. “The Umayyad Mosque of Amman.” The Fourth International Conference on the History of Bilad Al-Sham During the Umayyad Period (1989): 140-163.

Oakes, W. Richard. Review of Qur’anic Geography, by Dan Gibson, The Muslim World 105 (2015): 423-426.

Oleson, John P., Khairieh ‘Amr, Rebecca M. Foote and Robert Schick. “Preliminary Report of the Humayma Excavation Project, 1993.” Annual of the Depart­ment of Antiquities of Jordan 39 (1995): 317-354.

Oman: a seafaring nation, 2. Muscat: Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, Sultanate of Oman, 1991.

Parcak, Sarah and Christopher A. Tuttle. “Hiding in Plain Sight: The Discovery of a New Monumental Structure at Petra, Jordan, Using WorldView-1 and WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery.” Bulletin of the American Society of Overseas Research 375 (May 2016): 35-51. doi:10.5615/bullamerschoorie.375.0035

Peterson, Andrew. “Islamic Archaeology.” In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. 2014.

Pliny the Elder. The Natural History. Translated by John Bostock and H.T. Riley. London: Taylor and Francis, 1855.

Posamentier, Alfred. The Pythagorean Theorem: The Story of Its Power and Beauty. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2010.

Prawer, Joshua and Haggai Ben-Shammai, editors. The History of Jerusalem: The Early Muslim Period (638-1099). New York: NYU Press, 1996.

Qāʾidān, Aṣghar. Tārīkh wa āthār-i Islāmī-yi Mecca wa Medina, 4 ed. Tehran: Nashr-i Mashʿar, 1961.

Rahman, Mohanned. “The Qarmations: The world’s first enduring communistic society.” World Bulletin. Updated January 22, 2014.ṭians-the-worlds-first-enduring-communistic-society-h127416.html

Rasa’il Ikhwan al-Safa’. Beirut: Dar Sadir, 1957.

Al-Rashid, Sa’ad bin ‘Abd al-‘Aziz. Al-Rabadhah: A Portrait of Early Islamic Civilisation in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: King Saud University, 1986.

Rashid, Kajal and Iftekhar Mahmood. “The history of arrival of Muslims in South Asia will change: Thirteen and a half hundred years ago mosque.” Prothom Alo. Updated October 19, 2012.

Rawlinson, H. C. “Biblical Geography.” The Athenaeum Journal of Literature, Science, and the Fine Arts (January-June 1862): 529-531

Robinson, Chase F. “Neck-Sealing in Early Islam.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 48, no. 3 (2005): 401–441.

Rosenthal-Heginbottom, Renate. “A Forgotten Treasure: The Secrets of the Mampsis Hoard” Hecht Museum, University of Haifa 33 (2013): 49-56.

Russell, Kenneth W. “The Earthquake Chronology of Palestine and Northwest Arabia from the 2nd Through the Mid-8th Century A.D.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 260 (1985): 37-59.

Sabiq, As-Sayyid. Fiqh us-Sunnah. Translated by Muhammad Sa’eed Dabas and Jamal al-Din Zarabozo. Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1991.

Ibn Sa’d, Muḥammad. Kitāb aṭ-Tabaqāt al-Kabīr, Volume 1 Parts 1. Translated by Haroen Soebratie. Netherlands: 2012.

Ibn Sa’d, Muḥammad. Kitab at-Tabaqat al-Kabir Volume VIII: The Women of Madina. Translated by Aisha Bewley. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1995.

Saifullah, M. S. M., M. Ghoniem, ‘Abd al-Rahman, Robert Squires, and M. Ahmed. “The Qibla of Early Mosques: Jerusalem or Makkah?” Islamic Awareness. Last modified November 3, 2001.

Sayed, ʿAbdel Monem A. H. “emendations to the Bir Murayghan Inscription Ry 506 and a new minor inscription from there.” Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 18 (1988): 131–43.

Schoff, Wilfred H. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.

Schumm, Walter R. “A Statistical Comparison of the Apparent Importance of Various Prophets within Early Islamic and Christian Historical Documents.” Psychological Reports 93 (2003): 472-474.

Schumm, Walter R. “How Accurately Could Early (622-900 C.E.) Muslims Determine the Direction of Prayers (Qibla)?” Religions 11, no. 3 (2020): 1-16. doi:10.3390/rel11030102

Schumm, Walter R. “Reflections from the Social Sciences on the Possible Causes of Abusing Muslim Prisoners of War.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 23, no. 4 (2006): 136-148.

Schumm, Walter R. “Relative Chronology of Violent and Nonviolent Themes in Early Christian and Islamic Historical Documents.” Psychological Reports 94 (2004): 931-932.

Schumm, Walter R. “Relative Proportion of Ethical Teaching Versus Historical Events Concerning Jesus in Early Islamic and Christian Historical Documents.” Psychological Reports 94 (2004): 894-896.

Schumm, Walter R. “Variations in Themes of Asceticism, Humility, and Love Among Muslim Sayings Attributed to Jesus.” Islamic Studied 44, no. 1 (2005): 113-123.

Schumm, Walter R., A. Diane Ferguson, Malika S. Hashmat, and Telisa L. New. “Differences in Paradox between Islam and Christianity: A Statistical Comparison.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 16, no. 2 (2005): 167-185.

Schumm, Walter R. and Alison L. Kohler. “Social Cohesion and the Five Pillars of Islam: A Comparative Perspective.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 23, no. 2 (2006): 126-136.

Schumm, Walter R., Duane W. Crawford, Paul E. Barkey, Daniel Bush, and Daniel W. Bosch. “Using Statistics to Analyze Anthropological/Religious Issues from the Distant Past.” Insights of Anthropology 5, no. 1 (2021): 337-346.

Schumm, Walter R., Ruth C. Hatch, Jon Hevelone, and Kimberly R. Schumm. “Attrition and Retention Among Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Congregations in Three Metropolitan Regions: A Mail Survey of 1,149 Active and Inactive Members.” In A Case Study of Mainstream Protestantism: The Disciples’ Relation to American culture 1880-1989, edited by D.N. Williams, 521-553. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991.

Schumm, Walter R. and Zvi Goldstein. “A Statistical Assessment of Early Islamic History and the Qibla: Comparing the Theories of David King and Dan Gibson.” Open Access Journal of Archaeology and Anthropology 3, no. 1 (2021): 1-20. doi:10.33552/OAJAA.2020.03.000555

Schuster, Ruth. “African and Asian Elephants Differ in Ears, Trunk – and Brain.” Haaretz. last updated October 26, 2022.

Sebeos. Sebeos’ History. Translated by Robert Bedrosian. New York: Public Domain, 1985.

Shaddel, Mehdy. “Studia Onomastica Coranica: AL-Raqīm, Caput Nabataeae.” Journal of Semitic Studies 62, no. 2 (October 2017): 303-318. doi:10.1093/jss/fgx022

Shihab, Hasan Salih. “Stellar Navigation of the Arabs.” In The Principles of Arab Navigation, edited by Anthony R. Constable and William Facey. Kuwait: Arabian Publishing, 2013.

Sinibaldi, Micaela. “Did Petra’s inhabitants really abandon the city?” The British Academy, last modified March 6, 2022.

Sinibaldi, Micaela and Christopher A. Tuttle. “The Brown University Petra Archaeological Project : 2010 excavations at Islamic Bayḍā.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 55 (2011): 431-50.

Spijkerman, Augustus. The coins of the Decapolis and Provincia Arabia. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1978.

The Study Quran: A New Translation and Commentary. Edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr et al. New York: Harper Collins, 2017.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. Tasfir Al Qur’an 11. Beirut: Dar el Fikr, 2009.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume I: General Introduction and From the Creation to the Flood. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume V: The Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakmids, and Yemen. Translated by C.E. Bosworth. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of Al-Ṭabarī Volume VI: Muḥammad at Mecca. Translated by W. Montgomery Watt and M. V. McDonald. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume VII: The Foundation of the Community. Translated by W. Montgomery Watt and M. V. McDonald. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume VIII: The Victory of Islam. Translated by Michael Fishbein. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XII: The Battle of al-Qadisiyyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine. Translated by Yohanan Friedmann. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XIII: The Conquest of Iraq, Southwestern Persia, and Egypt. Translated by Gauthier H. A. Juynboll. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XIV: The Conquest of Iran. Translated by G. Rex Smith. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XIX: The Caliphate of Yazid b. Mu’awiyah. Translated by I.K.A. Howard. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XX: The Collapse of Sufyanid Authority and the Coming of the Marwanids. Translated by G. R. Hawting. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXI: The Victory of the Marwanids. Translated by Michael Fishbein. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXII: The Marwanid Restoration. Translated by Everett K. Rowson. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXIII: The Zenith of the Marwanid House. Translated by Martin Hinds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir al-Ṭabarī. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXVI: The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate. Translated by Carole Hillenbrand. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXVIII: Abbasid Authority Affirmed, trans. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXIX: Al-Mansur and al-Madi. Translated by Hugh Kennedy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXXV: The Crisis of the Abbāsid Caliphate. Translated by George Saliba. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.

Al-Ṭabarī, Abu Jafar Muhammad b. Jarir. The History of al-Tabari Volume XXXIX: The Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Successors. Translated by Ella Landau-Tasseron. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Al-Tha'ālibī. The Lata’if al-ma’arif of Tha’alibi. Translated by C. E. Bosworth. Edinburgh: University Press, 1968.

Tibbetts, Gerald R. Arabia in Early Maps. Naples: Falcon – Oleander, 1978.

Trombley, Frank R. “Paganism in the Greek World at the End of Antiquity: The Case of Rural Anatolia and Greece.” The Harvard Theological Review 78, no. 3/4 (1985): 327–352.

Vasiliev, A. A. “The Iconoclastic Edict of the Caliph Yazid II, A. D. 721.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 9/10 (1956): 23-47.

Al-Wahidi, Ali ibn Ahmad. Asbab al-Nazul, Translated by Mokrane Guezzou. Amman: Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, 2008.

El-Wakil, Abdel Wahed. “Qiblatain Mosque: Medina, Saudi Arabia.” Qiblatain Technical Review (1992).

Wang, Liamao. Return to the City of Light; Quanzhou : An Eastern City Shining with the Splendour of Medieval Culture. Translated by Michael Szonyi. Fujian: Fujian People’s Publishing House, 2000.

Al-Wāqidī, al-Tārīkh wa al-Maghazi. The Islamic Conquest of Syria. Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi. Taha Publishers Ltd., 2005.

Waugh, Daniel C. Review of Qur’anic Geography, by Dan Gibson. The Silk Road 10 (2006): 201.

Weber-Karyotakis, Thomas M. and Ammar Khammash. “Islamic Heritage Sites in Jordan: A Student’s Gazetteer.” Accessed January 9, 2023.

Wellhausen, Julius. The Arab Kingdom and its Fall. Translated by Margaret Graham Weir. Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1927. Wesshaar, H.J., H. Roth and W. Wijeyapala. Ancient Ruhuna. Sri Lankan-German archaeological project in the southern province. Mainz am Rhein: von Zabern, 2001. Yāqūt, al-Hamawi, Kitāb Mu’jam al-Buldān Volume 1. (1906).

Yāqūt al-Hamawi, Kitāb Mu’jam al-Buldān Volume 2, (1906). Yāqūt, al-Hamawi. Mu’jam al-Buldan Volume 4. Beirut: DarSadir Lil Tiba’ah wa-al Nashr, 1955.

Yāqūt, al-Hamawi. Mu’jam al-Buldan Volume 6. Beirut: DarSadir Lil Tiba’ah wa-al Nashr, 1955.

Al-Zahrani, Abdullah Ali Abadi. “Mining in Al-Baha Region, South-Western Saudi Arabia in Islamic-Era: The Archaeology of Asham.” PhD Thesis. University of York, 2014.

Page Discussion

Membership is required to comment. Membership is free of charge and available to everyone over the age of 16. Just click SignUp, or make a comment below. You will need a user name and a password. The system will automatically send a code to your email address. It should arrive in a few minutes. Enter the code, and you are finished.

Members who post adverts or use inappropriate language or make disrespectful comments will have their membership removed and be barred from the site. By becoming a member you agree to our Terms of Use and our Privacy, Cookies & Ad Policies. Remember that we will never, under any circumstances, sell or give your email address or private information to anyone unless required by law. Please keep your comments on topic. Thanks!