The Ring of Solomon and Surah 38:36-38

Though parallels between Solomonic and Islamic literature are well known and inevitably overlap with some of the material I present here, the content in this video is adapted entirely from my own comparative analysis.On the dating of ToS: “In 1898, F. C. Conybeare, in the preface to his English translation of the testament (MS P), noted that it was quoted as one of Solomon’s authentic writings in the Greek Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila. The Dialogue, a Christian document from about A.D. 400, was thought by Conybeare to go back to an earlier dialogue from the middle of the second century.” -D. C. Duling, “A New Translation and Introduction,” in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, vol. 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 940.Texts cited (continued in additional comment below)Testament of Solomon1:13(1-3rd Century A.D.), “Then the little boy went and spoke to Solomon, “King Solomon, I brought the demon to you just as you commanded me; observe how he is standing bound in front of the gates outside, crying out with a great voice to give me all the silver and gold of the earth so that I would not deliver him to you.” Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, pp. 962–963). New York; London: Yale University Press. Online see verse 8:http://www.esotericarchives.com/solomon/testamen.htm;http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.htmlSahih al-Bukhari 1210, “The Prophet (ﷺ) once offered the prayer and said, ‘Satan came in front of me and tried to interrupt my prayer, but Allah gave me an upper hand on him and I choked him. No doubt, I thought of tying him to one of the pillars of the mosque till you get up in the morning and see him. Then I remembered the statement of Prophet Solomon, ‘My Lord! Bestow on me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me.’ Then Allah made him (Satan) return with his head down (humiliated).’”https://sunnah.com/bukhari/21/14“Islamic folklore developed the Solomonic tale in tremendously fertile and imaginative ways. Solomon is the greatest of the world rulers, a true apostle of Allah, his messenger, and a prototype of Muhammad.” (Duling, D. C. (1983). A New Translation and Introduction.” In The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 951). New York; London: Yale University Press.)“Solomon is the subject of a large number of traditions and legends in Arabic literature, in which he completely overshadows in importance his father, David. Solomon is spoken of as the messenger of God (“rasul Allah”), and is in a way a prototype of Mohammed. Hence the importance assigned to his relations with the Queen of Sheba, the submission of whose country is taken to mean the submission of Arabia. The letter addressed to her, summoning her to accept Islam, begins with the same formula (“Bi-ism Allah al-Raḥman al-Raḥim”) as that used in the documents issued by Mohammed.” -Jewish Encyclopediahttp://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13842-solomon“In the medieval period, probably about the twelfth century, and probably under Arabian influence, Solomon became known especially as a writer of scientific and magical books. M. Seligsohn mentions forty-nine of these books…this list is by no means exhaustive…By the fifteenth century, books of magical secrets were attributed to many major characters of the Jewish Scriptures, including Adam and Moses, and especially Solomon. To this company, Zoroaster, Hermes Trismegistus, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Virgil, and Muḥammad were joined.” (Duling, D. C. (1983). A New Translation and Introduction. In The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 956). New York; London: Yale University Press.)“Then, since he dispensed with them [the horses] for the sake of Allah, Allah compensated him with something better, the wind which blew gently by his order wherever he willed.” -Tafsir Kathirhttp://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1954&Itemid=94“…he [wind demon] broke through a large contingent of soldiers, raised up a blustering cloud of dust from the earth, transported it upward, and hurled it against me many times (while I watched) in amazement…When I stood up, I spat on the ground at that spot and I sealed (him)…As a result, the moving air stopped.” -Testament of Solomon 7:2-3 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 969). New York; London: Yale University Press.)http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.htmlThen the boy obeyed the orders and went to Arabia. Now the men from the region doubted whether it was possible to bring the evil spirit under control. Nonetheless, before dawn the house servant got up and confronted the spirit of the wind…[the demon enters the flask] the boy stood firm. He bound up the mouth of the flask in the name of the Lord Sabaoth and the [wind] demon stayed inside the flask.” -Testament of Solomon22:12; 14 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 984). New York; London: Yale University Press.)http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.html“(And also the Shayatin, from every kind of builder and diver,) [Surah38:37] means, among them were some whom he used to build high rooms, images, basins as large as reservoirs, and cauldrons fixed (in their places), and other difficult tasks which humans were unable to do. And there was another group, who dived into the sea recovering pearls, jewels and other precious things which cannot be found anywhere else.” -Tafsir Kathir,http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1953&Itemid=94“…he [wind demon] broke through a large contingent of soldiers, raised up a blustering cloud of dust from the earth, transported it upward, and hurled it against me many times (while I watched) in amazement…Then I [Solomon]…commanded him to pick up stones and hurl them up to the heights of the Temple for the workmen.” -Testament of Solomon 7:2; 8 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 969). New York; London: Yale University Press.)http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.html“Now when I, Solomon, heard these things, I commanded him [Beelzeboul, prince of the demons] to cut blocks of Theban marble.” -Testament of Solomon 6:9 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 968). New York; London: Yale University Press.)http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.html“(And also the Shayatin, from every kind of builder and diver,) [Surah38:37] means, among them were some whom he used to build high rooms, images, basins as large as reservoirs, and cauldrons fixed (in their places), and other difficult tasks which humans were unable to do. And there was another group, who dived into the sea recovering pearls, jewels and other precious things which cannot be found anywhere else.” -Tafsir Kathir,http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1953&Itemid=94“Now there was a gigantic cornerstone which I wished to place at the head of the comer to complete the Temple of God. All the artisans and all the demons who were helping came to the same (location) to bring the stone and mount it at the end of the Temple, but they were not strong enough to budge it.” -Testament of Solomon 22:7-8 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 984). New York; London: Yale University Press.)When he had said these things, he [Arabian wind demon] went in underneath the stone, lifted it up, went up the flight of steps carrying the stone, and inserted it into the end of the entrance of the Temple. -Testament of Solomon 23:3 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 985). New York; London: Yale University Press.)Surah38:36-38, “Then We subjected the wind to his power, to flow gently to his order, Whithersoever he willed,- As also the evil ones, (including) every kind of builder and diver,- As also others bound together in fetters.”Then I [Solomon] said to him, “What can you do for me?” He [the Arabian wind demon] responded, “I am able to move mountains, to carry houses from one place to another, and to overthrow kings.” I said to him, “If you have the power, lift this stone into the beginning of the corner of the Temple.” But he responded, “I will raise not only this stone, King; but, with (the aid of) the demon who lives in the Red Sea, (I will) also (lift up) the pillar of air (which is) in the Red Sea and you shall set it up where you wish. -Testament of Solomon 23:1-2 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 985). New York; London: Yale University Press.)http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.htmlWhen I, Solomon, heard these things, I went into the Temple of God and, praising him day and night, begged with all my soul that the demon might be delivered into my hands and that I might have authority over him. Then it happened that while I was praying to the God of heaven and earth, there was granted me from the Lord Sabaoth through the archangel Michael a ring which had a seal engraved on precious stone. -Testament of Solomon 1:5-6 (Charlesworth, J. H. (1983). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha (Vol. 1, p. 962). New York; London: Yale University Press.)http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/testsolomon.html

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