Documentary Film based on Gibson's book: Qur'anic Geography


The Sacred City from Glasshouse Media on Vimeo.



 pre 1000 BC  Nebjoth is the first-born of Ishmael (Gen. 24:13)
 700 BC Isaiah mentions the people of Saba, and the people of Nebaioth, (Isaiah 60:1-7)
 627 BC Nabate, found in seventh-century B.C. Assyrian sources
  586 BC Nebuchadnezzar captures Jerusalem and the Jewish people sent to exile. Tribes of Arabia start to move northward into the empty land.
 552 BC  Nabonidus (Persian Empire) removes Edomite monarchy
 332 BC Alexander the Great conquers Syria and Palestine
 323  Alexander the Great dies
 312  Nabataeans mentioned by historian Diodorus
  312 BC Antigonus, the Seleucid ruler of Syria twice attempts to attack and plunder the Nabataeans living in Edom. The Nabataeans chose to buy off Antigonus with costly gifts, a pattern they would use in the future when dealing with invaders
 198 BC  Antiochus II victorious over Ptolemy III
  169 BC Aretas I, "Tyrant of the Arabs" and "King of the Nabatu" is mentioned in II Maccabees 5:8. During this time the Nabataeans were beginning to expand their domain from Biblical Edom into Moab
  145 BC Josephus (Antiquities XIII 131) mentions a Nabataean King Malichus reigning abut 145 B.C. but there is no other supporting evidence for this
  120-96 BC Aretas II, "Erotimus, King of the Arabs," is mentioned in connection with the siege of Gaza (c. 96 B.C.) by Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.). The city appealed to Aretas for help but it arrives too late
  90 BC Obodas I, "King of the Arabs," was the son of Aretas II
  93 BC Obodas defeated Alexander Jannaeus and gained control of the Hauran and Jebal Druze
  87 BC Rabbel I, another son of Aretas II, he reigned for less than a year. Antiochus XII Dionysus of Damascus (87-84 B.C.) set out to fight the Nabataeans. Rabbel fell in battle but the Kingdom was saved
  87 BC Aretas III, "Philhellene," becomes leader and conquers northern Transjordan and southern Syria
  85 B.C Aretas II becomes ruler of Damascus at the request of its inhabitants. The Nabataeans now contol both the maritime trade routes to India and the Middle Eastern link of the Silk Road.
 64 BC  Pompey conquers Syria and makes it a Roman province
  62 B.C. Pompey's general Scaurus devastated the area around Petra but could not take the city. The Nabataeans apparently buy their freedom by paying tribute
  62 BC Malichus I becomes ruler
  48 BC Malichus I sends camel cavalry to help Caesar in Egypt
  30 BC Obodas III becomes ruler. Later he is known as "The Divine Obodas" or "Zeus-Obodas" after his death. Obodas, is overshadowed by his chief minister, Syllaeus
  26 BC The failed expedition by Aelius Gallus into Southern Arabia with Syllaeus as his guide.
  5 BC Syllaeus executed in Rome. Obodas was buried in Oboda, the town in the Negev named after him. Obodas was deified and an impressive temple was raised in his honor at Oboda. His cult persisted until the third century
   9 BC Aretas IV made leader. He is known as "Philopatris," and was called "the King of the Nabatu, who loves his people." During his reign, the Nabataean Kingdom reached its zenith. He was in control of Damascus when his Ethnarch tried to arrest the Apostle Paul
  40 AD Malichus II, who was the first-born son of Aretas IV
  67 AD Malichus sends an army to help Vespacian in the siege of Jerusalem. Malichus lost control of Damascus but retained the territory to the east and southeast of it. Nomadic tribes from Arabia began attacking the southern parts of the Kingdom, penetrating into the Negev where they destroyed Oboda and forts on the Petra-Gaza road
  70 AD Rabbel II is leader. He is known as "He who gives life and salvation to his people." The earliest inscription with this title is dates AD 88 and comes from Oboda and is connected with agriculture. This may indicate that he earned this title by subjugating the Arab tribes and laying the basis for dry farming and horse raising. Like his father, Rabbel spent much time in Bostra in Nabataean Syria
  106 AD The Roman Legate of Syria, A. Cornelius Palma, on behalf of Emperor Trajan, annexed Nabataea and incorporated it into the Roman Empire as Provincia Arabia
 114 AD  Via Nova Traiana road completed between Bostra and Aila
  130 AD Emperor Hadrian visits Nabataea
 272 AD Fall of Palmyra
  363 AD First earthquake levels much of Petra
  390 AD Many Nabataeans in the Negev convert to Christianity
 423 AD  Many Nabataeans in Petra convert to Christianity
 551 AD  Second earthquake levels more of Petra and cities in Negev
 629 AD Islamic armies invade
 747 AD  Major earthquake destroys much of what is left of Nabataean cities
 900 AD  Final reference to Nabataeans in Islamic literature