Documentary Film based on Gibson's book: Qur'anic Geography


The Sacred City from Glasshouse Media on Vimeo.
The Spice Route Time Chart
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 India, Ceylon, Central Asia

 China and the Far East

3000 BC -

0 BC








3000 BC Minoan civilization the earliest in Europe, develops in Crete

Around 1900 BC Mycenaean civilization established on mainland Greece


336-323 BC Empire of Alexander the Great

323 Alexander the Great dies

146 BC Greece comes under Roman control








27 BC End of the Roman Republic, Octavian becomes Emperor


1000 BC Incense Road to Arabia in use

586 BC Nebuchadnezzar captures Jerusalem

552 BC Nabonidus (Persian) removes Edomite monarchy

332 BC Alexander the Great conquers Syria and Palestine

312 BC Antigonus fails to take Selah

120-96 BC Aretas II rules

96 - 76 B.C. Seige of Gaza

93 BC Obodas defeates Alex. Jannaeus

87 BC Rabbel I dies in battle

87 BC Aretas III conquers southern Syria

85 B.C Aretas II becomes ruler of Damascus The Nabataeans now contol both the maritime and landroutes to Asia

64 BC Syria becomes a Roman province

62 B.C. Roman army general Scaurus fails to take Petra. Malichus I becomes ruler.

30 BC Obodas III becomes ruler

26 BC Roman Army fails to take Yemen

30 BC Egypt made a Roman province

9 BC Aretas IV. Nabataean Kingdom reached its zenith

 About 2000 - 1500 BC Indus Valley civilizatrion flourishes in what is now Pakistan

About 15000 - 600 BC Vedic Period in India. Hinduy religion established


About 500 BC Buddhism founded in India.

550 - 330 BC The Persian Empire

247 BC Parthians established in Iran











About 2250 - 1766 BC Hsia Dynasty in China

1766 - 1027 BC Shang Dynasty in China

1027 - 221 BC Chou Dynasty in China

660 Legendary date for founding of Japan under Emperor Jimmu

202 BC Han Dynasty takes over China

150 BC - 50 AD Dong Son culture in North Vietnam

About 100 BC Silk Land Route fully open from China to the West










AD 1 -

500 AD

AD 117 Roman Empire at its largest

Around 200 AD Barbarians begin attacking frontiers of the Roman Empire.

330 AD Constantinople established as the new Capital of the Roman Empire.

395 AD Roman Empire splits into two.

476 AD Western Roman Empire collapses

486 Frankish kingdom formed, with land in Germany and France

30 AD Death of Jesus Christ, Christianity started as a new religion within the Roman Empire

70 AD Rabbel II becomes Nabataean ruler

106 AD The Romans annexed Nabataea

114 AD Via Nova Traiana road completed

130 AD Emperor Hadrian visits Nabataea

272 AD Fall of Palmyra

363 AD Earthquake levels much of Petra

390 - 423 AD Many Nabataeans convert to Christianity






224 AD Sasanians oust Parthians and establish empire through western Asia

ABout 250 AD Sasanians control much of the land spice trade

320 AD Gupta Empire founded in India


AD 73 - 91 Chinese defeat Xiongnu in Tarim region



220 AD Hand Dynasty collapses, China breaks into three

About 300 AD Yamato government established in Japan.

316 AD Japan invades Korea

316 - 598 Rival dynasties in north and south China

 501 AD -

1000 AD

610 Rinab Enpire now focused around eastern Mediterranean, known as Byzantine Empire

711 Arabs conquer Spain

732 Arab advance into Europe halted at the Battle of Poitiers

768 - 814 Charlemagne regns over teh Franks

793-794 Vikings begin raiding northern Europe

 632 Death of Muhammad. Muslim Arab expansion begins.

651 Muslims control Mesopotamia and Persian, and East-West trade

661 - 750 Umayyad Dynasty rules Muslim Empire from Damascus

750 - 1258 Abbasid Dynasty rules from Baghdad



Mid 900's Muslim Empire fragments

 535 AD Gupta Empire collapses







 552 AD Buddhism introuduced into Japan

581 Yang Chien founds the Sui Dynasty. China united in 589

618 - 907 T'ang Dynasty rules in China

794-1185 Heian Period in Japan

802 - 1431 Kingdom of Angkor in Cambodia under Khmer Dynasty

907 - 976 End of T'ang Dynasty. China divided by civil wars.

976 Sung Dynasty reunites China

1001 AD -

1500 AD

Around 1001 AD Start of the Middle Ages

1204 AD Fourth Crusade led by the Venetians, sacks Constantinople

1236 AD Mongols invade Russia

1271 Marco Polo sets out for the East

1348 Black Death ravages Europe

Around 1400 AD Renaissance begins

1453 Byzantine Empire Collapses

1488 Bartholomeu Dia sails around the Cape of Good Hope

1487-1499 Vasco da Gama's journey

 1096 First Crusade, Christians capture Jerusalem

1187 Muslims regain Jerusalem

1281-1326 Reign of Osman I, founder of Turkish Ottoman Empire



1325 Ibn Battutah's travels begin







1206 - 1368 Mongols control Central ASia. Overland trade prospers





1405 Final collapse of Mongol power. Spice Routes now remain the only effective channel for East-West trade.

1126 AD China divided in two

1156 - 1185 Civil wars in Japan

1196 Genghis Khan unites Mongols

1264 Mongol (Yuan) Dynasty founded in China


1368 Yuan Dynasty overthrown and replaced by Chinese Ming Dynasty


1405 - 1433 Chinese explore Spice Routes

About 1450 China adopts isolationist foreign policy

1477 - 1568 Provincial wars in Japan

1501 AD -

1700 AD


1521 Silk manufacture begins in Grance

1529 Turks besiege Vienna.

1571 Battle of Lepanto, Turks are defeated by Spanish and Venetians. Marks end of Turkish sea power in Mediteranean.

1600 English East India Company founded

1652-1674 Ango-Dutch Trade Wars

1689 - 1725 Reign of Peter the Great of Russia. Russia becomes a major European power.

1513, Turkish Admiral Piri Ibn Haji Memmed creates a map of the world

1566 Ottoman Empire at its largest.

1571 Battle of Lepanto, Turks are defeated by Spanish and Venetians. Marks end of Turkish sea power in Mediteranean.




1502 Safavid Dynasty established in Iran

1510 Portuguese capture Goa

1526 Mughuls defeat Sultan of Delhi and are established in India

1556 - 1605 Reign of theird Mughul Emperor, Akbar the Great

1594 English begin trading in India

1605 - 1627 Reign of Mughul Emperor Jahangir

1611 English East India Company estblishes a trading post in India

1696 English establish a trading base at Calcutta

1511 Portuguese take Malacca

1514 Portuguese reach China

1521 Portuguese realce Moluccas

1570 Nagasaki, Japan, opened to foreign traders

1596 Dutch in East Indies

1619 Dutch establish base at Batavaria in Java

1623 Ambon Massacre, Dutch destroy English base in East Indies

1637 Foreigners forbidden in Japan

1641 Dutch seize Malacca

1644 Chinese Ming Dynasty ends Ch'ing (Manzbou) Dynasty starts.

1685 China open to foreign trade

Who were the ancient Arab Sea Traders? Alexandria, the center of trade
Nabataeans in Italy Berenice Port on the Red Sea
Nabataeans in Africa Myos Hormos Port on the Red Sea
Africa: Juani Island Leuce Come Port on the Red Sea
Africa: Mafia Island Trade on the Arabian Sea
Africa: The Coast of Tanzania Trade on the Red Sea
Nabataeans in India Nabataeans in the Arab Gulf
The Kingdoms of South India Indian Pottery Found in Petra
Arab Ports of Call in India Trade on the Bay of Bengal
Nabataeans and Sri Lanka Ancient Trade Items
The Kingdom of Ruhuna Nabataeans in Turkey
Stone Anchors from Arabia in Sri Lanka Malacca in Asia
Southern Arabia Dong Song Kingdom in Vietnam
Southern Arabia Countryside African Pottery found in Nabataea
Southern Arabia A Caravansary Nabataean Trade Routes
Southern Arabia: The Marib Dam Nabataeans on Rhodes
Southern Arabia Sa'ada (City in the North) The Ancient Maritime Sea Route
Southern ArabiaYemeni Lifestyle A Proposed New Trade Route Directly East fromPetra
Nabataeans in Antartica? Elephants and the Nabataeans
Nabataeans in China Trade on the China Sea
The Spice Route Time Chart (China, India, Arabia, Europe)  Nabataea found in Chinese Texts
China: The Li-Kan Question  Chinese Maritime History
An overview of Chinese history The 'West' as mentioned in Chinese historical sources
Book Review; 1421 - The Year China Discovered the World